Flu iiq

The flu-iiQTM is already available over 50 languages.

The flu-iiQTM has been translated into over 50 languages using our best practice translation protocol including linguistic, cultural and measurement adaptation with triangulation across all other flu-iiQTM translations to ensure equivalence between languages.

The licence fee includes use of any of the existing flu-iiQTM translations.

Translation standards
International standards exist to guide translation. It is not a simple matter of getting ‘someone’ to translate the words. Each concept must be translated to match the original (English), both in terms of cultural equivalence and measurement equivalence.

Our translation protocol covers the selection of appropriately qualified translators, forward translation, back translation and discussions with personnel who are experienced with the target languages in the community setting.

Our process culminates in an intensive translation consensus meeting chaired by the author of the flu-iiQTM Dr Richard Osborne, involving translators and local bi-lingual clinical personnel during which each and every word and phrase of the translation is discussed and analysed.

Dr Osborne is regarded as an international expert in translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires. Having developed and refined procedures over the past 10 years 1, he has personally chaired over 150 translation consensus meetings (ranging between 3 and 12 hours each) across all major language groups. His processes are more comprehensive than any published guidelines 1,3,4. With international colleagues he has conducted very large and comprehensive tests of translation protocols. See Epstein et al.5

New translations
To ensure the integrity and efficacy of the questionnaire are maintained, the flu-iiQTM can only be translated through MESH. The translation process can take up to eight weeks depending on the language, availability of suitably qualified translators and the identification and availability of suitable local participants for the translation consensus process. Clients requiring additional languages are therefore advised to allow plenty of lead time to ensure we can meet your deadlines.

A fee is charged for all new translations and translated versions of the flu-iiQTM remain the property of the questionnaire’s developer Dr Richard H Osborne.


1 Hawkins M, Osborne RH. Questionnaire translation and cultural adaptation procedure. Burwood, Victoria: Deakin University; 2010.
2 Guillemin F, Bombardier C, Beaton D. Cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: literature review and proposed guidelines. J Clin Epidemiol 1993 Dec;46(12):1417-32.p>
3 Koller M, Aaronson NK, Blazeby J, Bottomley A, Dewolf L, Fayers P, et al. Translation procedures for standardised quality of life questionnaires: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) approach. Eur J Cancer 2007 Aug;43(12):1810-20.
4 Wild D, Grove A, Martin M, Eremenco S, McElroy S, Verjee-Lorenz A, et al. Principles of Good Practice for the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Process for Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) Measures: report of the ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. Value Health 2005 Mar;8(2):94-104.
5 Epstein J, Osborne RH, Elsworth GR, Beaton DE, Guillemin F. Cross-cultural adaptation of the heiQ questionnaire: experimental study showed expert committee, not back-translation, added value. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 68(4) 360-369